Lab environment may be artificial and not reflect everyday life. 2018, Published 1 May 2019 It is argued that no-one ever observes without some idea of what they're looking for. [blank_start]Randomisation[blank_end] refers to the use of [blank_start]chance[blank_end] wherever possible during an experiment to reduce investigator effects. Systematic sampling: every [blank_start]nth[blank_end] person is selected e.g. Sampling method (e.g. Dealing with confidentiality: this often done by referring to participants by [blank_start]numbers[blank_end] or [blank_start]initials[blank_end]. What are the strengths of a lab experiment? It can be justified if it means participants' behaviour is more [blank_start]natural[blank_end] and they are not suffering. Italian study to see if % of babies of different attachment types (MUST FINISH). Some questions may need to be rewritten/changed to closed questions after a Test-retest. [blank_start]Leading[blank_end] questions are also an example of investigator effects. Standardise procedures, use control groups, minimise Ps reactivity and investigator effects; use single/double blind techniques. A Level Psychology past paper revision at MME. The researcher calculates what percentage each strata is of the [blank_start]target population[blank_end] (e.g. Deception: [blank_start]deliberately[blank_end] misleading or withholding information. AQA Psychology Research Methods quiz for AS. | PDF | 207 KB, Examiner report (A-level): Data is at least ordinal or we assume the data is interval. Involves identifying implicit or explicit ideas from data. - June If a theory hasn't been tested using empirical methods, it cannot classify itself as being scientific. - June Results are compared. AQA Psychology Research Methods quiz for AS. Participants who drink 200ml of coffee in one hour can answer 5 more questions in a 20 minute period than participants who drink 200ml of water in one hour. Laboratory:Conducted in a highly controlled environment. [blank_start]Repeated[blank_end] measures: [blank_start]one group[blank_end], does both the control condition and the experimental condition. Paper 1 Introductory topics in psychology 2018, Published 1 May 2019 2018, Examiner report (AS): Which technique is used to minimise the effects of extraneous/confounding variables on an outcome? 40% female) and then participants are [blank_start]randomly[blank_end] sampled accordingly. This means participants can't [blank_start]give informed consent[blank_end]. Paper 2 Psychology in context Content analysis can produce qualitative data. Investigator effects: how the [blank_start]researcher[blank_end]'s behaviour influences a participant's behaviour e.g. People who drink caffeine will be more intelligent than people who don't. This is bias. How can you improve the validity of an observation? Paper 2 Psychology in context Genie was a child raised in social isolation with little human contact. The sample: a small group that is ideally representative of the [blank_start]target[blank_end] population. Controlled observations [blank_start]can't[blank_end] be easily generalised, but extraneous variables are [blank_start]less[blank_end] common so replication is [blank_start]easier[blank_end], {"ad_unit_id":"App_Resource_Leaderboard","width":728,"height":90,"rtype":"Quiz","rmode":"canonical","placement":2,"sizes":"[[[0, 0], [[970, 250], [970, 90], [728, 90]]]]","custom":[{"key":"env","value":"production"},{"key":"rtype","value":"Quiz"},{"key":"rmode","value":"canonical"},{"key":"placement","value":2},{"key":"uauth","value":"f"},{"key":"uadmin","value":"f"},{"key":"ulang","value":"en"},{"key":"ucurrency","value":"usd"}]}. Naturalistic observation: watching and recording behaviour in the setting in which it would [blank_start]normally[blank_end] be performed. 2018, Published 1 May 2019 Can't consent and privacy may be invaded. What 3 things you need to know to be able to choose a statistical test? Confounding variables: any variable other than the [blank_start]IV[blank_end] which may have affected the [blank_start]DV[blank_end] so we are unsure of the true source of the changes to the DV. - June Informed consent: making participants aware of the [blank_start]aims[blank_end], procedures, their [blank_start]rights[blank_end] and the use of the data. Involves manipulation of of an independent variable to measure the effect on the dependent variable. Dealing with protection from harm and deception: [blank_start]debriefing[blank_end] can be used to ensure the participants know the aims and [blank_start]details[blank_end] of the study. Volunteer sampling: involves the researcher advertising the study, and participants selecting [blank_start]themselves[blank_end] to take part (volunteer)z, Name three disadvantages of random sampling, Name two advantages of systematic sampling, Name two advantages of stratified sampling, Strata identifies all ways people are different, Name a disadvantage of stratified sampling, Name an advantage of opportunity sampling, Name two disadvantages of opportunity sampling, Name a disadvantage of volunteer sampling. One example of a study that lacks temporal validity. State one occasion where a psychologist may choose to use a directional hypothesis. Why is psychology more likely to be contaminated by bias? Generalising research findings to different people or different environments. What are the limitations of field experiments? The probability of the results are due to chance is 0.05%. 2018, Published 1 May 2019 Where there's no previous research, or the findings from earlier studies are contradictory. - June | PDF | 391 KB, Question paper (Modified A3 36pt) (AS): | PDF | 964 KB, Question paper (Modified A3 36pt) (A-level): Topic 1: Social Influence. High external validity. The target population: a [blank_start]subset[blank_end] of general population e.g. - June Demand characteristics: in which the participant guesses the [blank_start]aim[blank_end] of a study, and then acts accordingly e.g. I found this immensely useful in helping me achieve an A* grade as what I did was I would go over these questions while cross-comparing against the mark scheme. A clear, precise, testable statement that states the relationship between the variables to be investigated. Demand characteristics are any cues from the researcher or from the research situation that may be interpreted by participants as revealing the study's purpose and may lead to participants altering their behaviour, whereas an extraneous variable is any variable other than the IV that may affect the DV if uncontrolled. It can make a study seem [blank_start]unnatural[blank_end] if the participant knows the aims. For example, giving researchers lists of words to remember, giving them another task to prevent rehearsal, then testing their recall of the information. Controlled observation: watching and recording behaviour within a [blank_start]structured[blank_end] environment e.g. A sampling frame (alphabetised list of target population) is produced and every nth person is selected. Psychology deals with living matter - conscious and reasoning human beings. Topic 3: Attachment. An in-depth investigation, description, and analysis, over time, of a 'case', usually a single individual or a small group, or an event. Difference or correlation, the experimental design and the level of measurement.

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