Table: 5 Headteachers' Rankings Of High Priority Curriculum Areas, By Different School Categories. Research undertaken along these lines in the special schools in Pakistan would undoubtedly generate a valuable data base for teachers in special education that should be useful to others engaged in reviewing and developing their own practice. But ultimately persistence and gentle reminders paid off, and a reasonably large and representative sample of schools was obtained. Proposals for improving the transition process of young people with intellectual disabilities in Spain: insights from focus groups of professionals, young people and their families. The Effects of Concrete-Representational-Abstract Sequence of Instruction on Solving Equations Using Inverse Operations with High School Students with Mild Intellectual Disability. BODIES RESPONSIBLE FOR PLANNING THE SCHOOL CURRICULUM f %The Federal Capital 25 36Provincial Boards of Education. Warnock (1978) places great emphasis on the type of curriculum required for pupils with special educational needs, and Brennan (1979) and Ainscow (1988 a, b) point out that the problem in special education is to match curricular resources to the needs of pupils. It must be noted however, that the present survey revealed that nearly all the special schools are located in urban communities, and the advice that emphasis should be placed on a rural curriculum may not only be unwelcome but inappropriate. In addition, curriculum is a really difficult topic for special education, especially when it involves teaching students whose skills are significantly lower than other students their age. The identification of difficulties experienced by headteachers in achieving a balance in the curriculum for pupils with special educational needs between: a. subjects specific to children with special needs b. subjects which appear in the national/provincial curriculum in normal schools. 10307 0 obj <> endobj (The role of parents in the education of children with special needs is increasingly emphasised in Western literature, for example see Younghusband et al 1970, Warnock 1978, Kirk and Gallagher 1979, Galloway 1979, and Tomlinson 1982). However, Warnock (1978) also expresses concern that many special schools in Britain are isolated from mainstream curriculum development, and upholds the right of pupils with special needs to gain access to the same curriculum as is available to their peers. Such a practice has been known to result in significant social and educational gains achieved by pupils attending such courses (Schools Council Report 1982). Seven Things to Keep in Mind When Choosing Curriculum for Special Needs Students. 5)����躘�8�`b3h �Y!ű!��a� ��5��G+Ѥ��Ɣ��S�a��b63D$ Students with special needs tend to show significantly lower achievement in science than their peers. CURRICULUM AREASSchool Categories M.D V.IH.IP.DMore than 1 disabilityFunctional academics 7578958982Music, art and craft 25331606Social studies 02203319Social skills training 8833685677Science studies 0061120Religious education 056374424Practical skills training8622374444Vocational training2533352224Physical education 2533113331 The curriculum in these special schools is not very different from ordinary schools, though sometimes these children receive a reduced or modified version of the curriculum. It is also possible that some of the schools listed as having opened since 1986 had not yet commenced to function in an organised manner. ĞÏࡱá > şÿ a c şÿÿÿ ^ _ ` ÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿÿì¥Á 7 ğ¿ •Ë bjbjUU "® 7| 7| •Ç ÿÿ ÿÿ ÿÿ l ( b b b b , 8b \ ( ö¾ À  e  e  e  e  e  e  e  e u¾ w¾ w¾ w¾ w¾ w¾ w¾ $ ¶À Ö º ›¾  e  e  e  e  e ›¾ ¸w  e  e °¾ ¸w ¸w ¸w  e ^  e  e u¾ ¸w  e u¾ ¸w ¸ ¸w py Ş 7œ ò y¤  e ”e tÖ=´vÁ( ä^ b şn ’ )£ ¨ y¤ ü ƾ 0 ö¾ Ñ£ ¨ �à �w ( �à y¤ ¸w ( ( Ù The Curriculum in Special Needs Education in Pakistani schools David Fontana University of Wales and Zahida Lari North East Wales Institute The education of children with special needs in Pakistan is an area which is grossly neglected and in need of urgent attention. TYPE OF CURRICULUMNUMBER OF SCHOOLS% OF SCHOOLS% OF PUPILS FOLLOWING CURRICULUMCurriculum and 25360examination461 -25of the Federal 1126 -50Capital or4651 - 75Province152176 - 992130100A reduced or43610modified version16231 - 25of the curriculum3426 - 50set by the23 51 - 75Federal Capital0076 - 99or Province69100A specially adapted 32460curriculum15211 - 25which emphasises5726 - 50the acquisition of life 2351 - 75skills and the skills 6976 - 99of self maintenance1014100 The data obtained for the type of curriculum were further analysed in terms of type of disability, and the results presented in Table 2, indicate that while nine out of 10 schools catering for the mentally disabled have no pupils following the curriculum and examination system of the Federal Capital or the Province, a large number of schools catering for all other types of disability have a high percentage of their pupils (76 to 100 percent) following such a curriculum. The Review of Policy also states however, that the detailed design and implementation of the curriculum, though subject to centrally issued guidelines, should be the responsibility of the heads of special schools. The therapeutic role of these activities in teaching children with special needs is now well recognised (Stott 1966, Galloway and Goodwin 1979, Wilson and Evans 1980); and as Hewett (1968) and Rutter et al (1970) point out, the teaching of literacy and numeracy can in itself be therapeutic. h�bbd``b��$5���`�$X Table: 4 Headteachers' Ranking Of Curriculum Areas, By Level Of Priority. The overall aim of the study was to provide a coherent picture of the state of special education in Pakistan. This knowledge should have an even greater significance for teachers in special education in Pakistan and other developing countries, since many of them have had no formal training, and do not have at their disposal the vast literature for consultation available in British libraries and in other advanced Western countries. This concentration on the teaching of basic subjects is not surprising since success in the rest of education depends on reading, writing and computing. Headteachers' responses to the questionnaire show that this is equally applicable to pupils with special educational needs in Pakistan. Teaching students with intellectual and developmental disabilities to calculate cost after discounts via schematic diagrams. h��V�O[�?���&�:~�b And keeping in mind Blaug's (1973) warning that parental approval towards such an effort is essential for success, every effort should be made to promote parental involvement. = Physical Disability Hegarty and Pocklington (1982) point out that curricular provision for pupils with special needs in Britain ranges from special curricula with little or no reference to work being done by their age peers, to an unsupported normal curriculum. More recent curriculum and other interventions recommended by key documents published in Britain, such as The National Curriculum, SEN Code of Practice or the Green Papers will not affect the planning or implementation of special education in Pakistan in the foreseeable future. More detailed attention needs to be given to the role played by subjects such as art and craft activities, music, drama and physical education. Since some headteachers did not respond to certain items (which are therefore considered as missing values), the totals and percentages are not the same in all tables. A total of 70 questionnaires were eventually returned, which represents a response rate of 52 percent. It is stressed that the fundamental difference in the curriculum for children with special needs must lie in the methods employed by teachers in response to the type of disability experienced by children, and that this difference must moreover be reflected in all related in-service training courses. Historically, educational policy and practice in Pakistan has been influenced by the legacy of the British (1757 - 1947). 4.62 5 6. Services for children with special needs in Pakistan are subdivided into four categories of handicap. Academics can enrich life – 3. Taking into consideration these difficulties and constraints on research in developing nations, the response obtained to the questionnaire was considered adequate, particularly in view of the non-availability of many of the schools to which the questionnaire was sent. However, the figures in Table 3 show that headteachers accept this responsibility only 41 percent of the time. A constraining circumstance is that, as recent reports indicate, Pakistan’s children face poor performance on social indicators, and have a health status that continues to be deficient. Often the biggest hurdle in starting to home school a special needs Special Needs: Best Curriculum of 5 Basic Subjects for Students Often the biggest hurdle in starting to homeschool a special needs student is finding the best curriculum for the basic subjects. The National Policy also proposes that training centres be set up in each provincial capital to provide job specific training along the lines of the National Training Centre for the Disabled which currently operates in Islamabad. (�6Z��I�a��&��h���{����>>�{�/ � �t �|����� �5(����M;(%��9��1' ���a�V�w�q��p8��ѿ��=K���ߍ�°�����挮3�|�+�q����b�r�J�p�b�3�B��Y���e��$�4:.�&�. Method In order to clarify the current situation in the wake of these policy documents, the present research conducted a survey of special school headteachers in Pakistan, using a purpose-built questionnaire. Areas in the curriculum particularly in need of attention in a design of the school curriculum. In order to explore whether the differences between means reach significance, the Kruskal-Wallis One-Way Analysis of Variance was computed for each of the five types of schools and the nine areas of the curriculum, and the results are presented in Table 6. Independent philosophy on special education is therefore in its infancy in Pakistan, and even so is still clearly influenced by the Warnock Report (1978). But the curriculum in mainstream schools has been criticised for being inadequate and narrow in range in many developing nations, and this raises questions about its suitability for pupils with special educational needs. Introducing change and innovation in schools is a difficult task. %PDF-1.7 %���� How effective is the curriculum content/ skills taught with regards to student growth? It is suggested by Warnock (1978) among others that these subjects can be followed on a joint basis by pupils from special and ordinary schools which would help to maintain links with local mainstream schools. This would also result in increased contacts between the home and school and community links in the wider sense could be stengthened. 4.57 5 7. Reports of life skills training for students with intellectual disabilities in and out of school. This paper analyzed 10 commercially available functional curriculum models designed for secondary students with mild-to-moderate mental impairment. Although there are some differences in ranking of curriculum areas by headteachers these differences were not found to be significant (Table 6 and Table 7), and there was general agreement among headteachers as to the relative importance of different areas of the curriculum.

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